Philosophy students and drugs

According to a survey made by The Tab ( the student newspaper of the University of Cambridge), the students who do the most drugs are the philosophy ones. This survey was made at 21 British Universities to more than 5,000 students, and it discovered that around the 90% of these students have, at least once, experimented with drugs. Is therefore, any relation between philosophy and drugs?

lsd-mushroom-experience

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I am not Charlie Hebdo: Ethnocentrism vs. Interculturalism

Recent days events are convulsing International panorama: it is well known what is French “Charlie Hebdo’s Magazine” and what happened when radical Islamist “took their revenge” from the jokes made about Muhhamed and Islamic religion by killing 12 journalists and illustrators from the magazine office. Since these murders, the vast majority of online users from Western Nations support the magazine in the name of freedom of expression but… How far can “freedom of expression” go?

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Covering Islam: a culture through the Western lens

The relationship between Western Nations and Islamic World has been tending to be conflictive, apparently due to a mutual misunderstanding. That’s why the interest on the study of Islamic culture and way of life has increased in the recent decades between Western researchers. However, these work on “Islamis Affairs” has been based, in many cases, on wrong perspectives and conceptions, as a consequence of the lack of comprehension and mistaken interpretations. The result of this degenerated knowledge of Islamic reality are actions guided by wrong principles and perspectives, as it can be seen nowadays on almost every piece of news about Islam.

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David Hume analized by three experts

There are many works and researches about the Scottish philosopher David Hume, one of the most famous author in the 18th-century, mainly for his works about the empiricism and also about scepticism. I have selected three professors’ articles about David Hume.

Felipe Giménez is a teacher in the IES of Bilbao. He says that Hume was not only a skeptic author, he was “a philosopher who wanted to apply the methods of experimental research to the study of human nature”. It is important to take into account that, for Hume, the word “experience” means habit or custom. Despite normally it is said that David Hume, John Locke and Geroge Berkeley have similar thinkings, Mr. Giménez makes differences between Hume’s thought and Locke’s and Berkeley’s thoughts, specially according to the religion. Locke and Berkeley said that “God was the cause of our existence or our impressions”, but Hume doesn’t share that affirmation, because for him, there is not a supreme God, and to justify that, he appeals to the problem of the evilness around the world. David Hume says that it is based on the sense of fear that people have against death.

Mr. José Reinel Sanchez, a colombian philosopher, sets aside the empirical doctrine, and he emphasize in his article that David Hume’s thought is nearly relevant to Thomas Hobbe’s ideology. Hobbes displays a human subject as someone bad, cruel and selfish, so Hume uses these adjetives to explain that each subject obtains his own experience. Despite Hume shares many things with Hobbes, Reinel remarks that Hume also defends the idea that “a subject should follow and respect a number of rules”. The objective of this is to mantain the peace in the society. According to Hume, “the requirement to live comfortably and quietly is one of the reasons that facilitate the emergence of justice”, so Reinel describes Hume as a philosopher who wants to find the true justice using the own experiences.

Mr. Iñaki Oneca wants to recover the empirical topics and he explains what are the different types of informations that we receive, from Hume’s point of vew. He says that in Hume’s opinion, a man could use two differents “tools” against a direct contact with something: the immediate perception and reflection. The first gives us different impressions, while the second is able to differentiate what it appears in those impressions. In addition, reflection allows us to distinguish between the way that they give us impressions and how they are given the reflections. The immediate perceptions are given with great force (the emotions and passions). However, he says that “the reflexions appear to us more smoothly”. To the first group, Hume calls impressions, and to the second group, ideas.

To synthesize Hume’s thought (taking into account those philosophers’ opinions), for him all our knowledge comes from the differets experiences we live during the existance. Inside those experiences, there are two categories: immediate perceptions, which create a first opinion, and reflexive perceptions, which form a more elaborated opinion about something. And the main objective of those knowledge finding is to discover the true justice.

References

Felipe Giménez .Lecciones sobre David Hume. http://www.filosofia.net/materiales/tem/hume.htm

José Reinel Sánchez (2012) David Hume, la imposibilidad de un progreso en los sentimientos morales. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0718-43602012000100009&script=sci_arttext

Iñaki Oneca Agurruza (2003) David Hume: Dios y el hecho religioso http://www.apostadigital.com/revistav3/hemeroteca/oneca1.pdf

Index librorum prohibitorum

During the 16th century, the Catolic Church had a big power in the society, specially in Europe. Utilising this power, the Catolic Church made a booklist. The aim of the list was to protect the faith and morals of the faithful by preventing the reading of heretical and immoral books.

Almost all the scientific theories that were developped in those years had been banned because of the discrepancies with the Church and with the catholic message. However, many of those scientific researches had been taught in the universities. The theory about the heliocentrism was banned by the church, but in 1758 it was treated as a normal science.

In fact, all the books which expose something different that the Catolic church defended where banned. Big philosophers like Immanuel Kant, David Hume, George Berkeley or Rene Descartes had been introduced in the list. For example, Immanuel Kant’s “Critique of the pure reason” was banned in 1827 (54 years after it’s publication). This work analyzes some topics like metaphysic or the existance, so therefore, it questions some areas that the Catolic church treated as something obvious.

Mr Miguel Ortiz stresses in his article that there are some writers that were energetically against the religion and they don’t appear in this list. For example Schopenhauer, Marx or Nietzsche are not in the booklist, and that is because these authors’ works were directly banned by the Church and also by the authorities. It means that the possession of one of their books was a crime. Charles Darwin and her work “On the origin of species” had been treated as something satanic. Finally, On 7 December 1965, Pope Paul VI issued the Motu Proprio”Integrae servandae” that re-constituted the Holy Office as the “Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_Librorum_Prohibitorum

http://www.aloha.net/~mikesch/ILP-1559.htm

http://www.papelenblanco.com/fantastico-ci-fi/index-librorum-prohibitorum-el-indice-de-libros-prohibidos-por-la-iglesia-catolica-y-ii

http://www.documentalistaenredado.net/435/index-librorum-prohibitorum-et-expurgatorum/

Paradoxes or prejudice towards civilizations

Fernando Villaseñor criticizes the argumentative discourse that Huntington used in Clash of Civilizations because it provides a kind of prejudice in conflicts narrated. The intention is suggesting Fernando to establish guidelines to investigate the relationships between civilizations from a vision problem, and even more unrecognizable character of permanent conflict.

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